2020 Berwick Bank Wind Farm

The original proposal for Berwick Bank Wind Farm in respect of which a Scoping Opinion was received from the Scottish Ministers in March 2021.


Accumulation of sediment deposition in the intertidal region.


Palaeolithic period stone tools characterised by distinctive oval and pear-shaped hand axes.

Agreement of Lease (AfL)

Legal agreement from The Crown Estate/The Crown Estate Scotland whereby an option over an area of foreshore or seabed is granted to a developer for an agreed purpose. If required permissions are gained, the developer gain consent to use the option.

Air Gap

The lowest blade tip point to sea clearance distance as measured from the Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT).


The act of striking or collision of a moving vessel against a stationary object.



Anadromous fish

Fish species that regularly migrate from sea to fresh water to spawn.


An invertebrate belonging to the phylum annelid. Also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

Annex I Habitat

A natural habitat type of community interest, defined in Annex I of the Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (Habitats Directive). The designation of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) is required in the UK to ensure the conservation of these habitats. The protection afforded to sites designated prior to EU Exit persists in UK law.

Annex II Species

Animal or plant species of community interest, defined in Annex II of the Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (Habitats Directive). The designation of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) is required in the UK to ensure the conservation of these species. The protection afforded to sites designated prior to EU Exit persists in UK law.


The Applicant is applying for the following consents as part of this Application: a Section 36 consent under the Electricity Act 1989; marine licences under the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009and (where relevant) under the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 for the part of the offshore export cables which are within 12 nm of the coast. 

Appropriate Assessment

An assessment to determine the implications of a plan or project on a European site in view of that site’s conservation objectives. An Appropriate Assessment forms part of the Habitats Regulations Appraisal (HRA) and is required when a plan or project (either alone or in combination with other plans or projects) is likely to have a significant effect on a European site.

Array Area

Area within which offshore wind turbines, inter-array cables and offshore substations platforms/offshore convertor station platforms will be located .


A member of the phylum Arthropoda, the largest phylum in the animal kingdom, which includes such familiar forms as lobsters, crabs, spiders, mites, insects, centipedes, and millipedes.



Automatic Identification System (AIS)

A system by which vessels automatically broadcast their identity, key statistics including location, destination, length, speed and current status (e.g. under power). Most commercial vessels and United Kingdom/European Union fishing vessels over 15 m length are required to carry AIS.


The existing conditions as represented by the latest available survey and other data which is used as a benchmark for making comparisons to assess the impact of the Proposed Development.

Bathing waters

Scottish ministers determine the length of the bathing season and designate bathing waters where they expect large numbers of people to bathe. These areas are given special protection to ensure they are safe for people to swim in during the bathing season, which typically runs from 1 June to 15 September.

Bathing Water Directive

European Union's revised legislation (Council Directive 2006/7/EC) replacing the previous Bathing Water Directive (76/1160/EEC). The Directive introduces a new classification system (bathing waters are classed as ‘Excellent’, ‘Good’, ‘Sufficient’ or ‘Poor’) with more stringent water quality standards than the previous Directive and puts an emphasis on providing information to the public


The measurement of water depth in oceans, seas and lakes.

Before Present (B.P.)

An archaeological dating convention – the present presumed in this Offshore EIA Report is 1950 (based on uncalibrated radiocarbon dates).

Benthic Ecology

Benthic ecology encompasses the study of the organisms living in and on the sea floor, the interactions between them and impacts on the surrounding environment.

Benthic Fish

Fish that live on or near the sea bottom, irrespective of the depth of the sea. Many benthic species have modified fins, enabling them to crawl over the bottom; others have flattened bodies and can lie on the sand; others live among weed beds, rocky outcrops, and coral reefs.

Benthopelagic Fish

Benthopelagic fish usually float in the water column just above the sea floor and can occupy either shallow coastal waters or deep waters offshore. Examples of benthopelagic species include dogfish, cod, haddock, whiting, monkfish and saithe.


Egg bearing individual whereby eggs are attached to its tail or some other exterior part.

Berwick Bank Wind Farm

The wind farm which is to be located within the Agreement for Lease area for Berwick Bank Wind Farm (formerly Seagreen 2 Offshore Wind Farm) and the Agreement for Lease area for Marr Bank (formerly Seagreen 3 Offshore Wind Farm) - together now referred to as Berwick Bank Wind Farm.

Berwick Bank Wind Farm Offshore Infrastructure

The offshore infrastructure of the Proposed Development includes the offshore wind farm (the wind turbines, their foundations and associated inter-array and interconnectors cabling), together with associated infrastructure of the offshore transmission asset , Offshore Substation Platforms (OSPs)/Offshore convertor station platforms, their foundations and the offshore export cables and cable protection.


The combination of physical environment (habitat) and its distinctive assemblage of conspicuous species.

Birds of Conservation Concern

Regular UK-wide review of status of bird species of conservation concern.


A large class of molluscs, also known as pelecypods. They have a hard calcareous shell made of two parts or 'valves'.


A narrow shaft bored in the seabed used in offshore geotechnical surveys.

Boundary Change

Reduction in the Berwick Bank Wind Farm 2021 Scoping Report boundary completed in May 2022 to reduce potential effects on key receptors.


BP plc


Aquatic invertebrate.

Cable Burial Risk Assessment

Risk assessment to determine suitable burial depths for cables, based upon hazards such as anchor strike, fishing gear interaction and seabed mobility.

Canadian PEL/TEL

The Canadian Sediment quality guidelines consist of threshold effect levels (TEL) and probable effect levels (PEL). These are used to identify the following three ranges of chemical concentrations with regard to biological effects: 1) Below the TEL: the minimal effect range within which adverse effects rarely occur, 2) Between the TEL and PEL: the possible effect range within which adverse effects occasionally occur, 3) Above the PEL: the probable effect range within which adverse effects frequently occur.

Carbon Capture and Storage

Integrated process of three stages: capture of CO2 from power stations and large industrial sources; transporting CO2 to a storage site; and permanent storage of CO2 in deep geological features.

Central Belt

An area of Scotland that stretches from Glasgow in the west to Edinburgh in the east.


Aquatic mammals constituting the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins, porpoises).


The subzone of the rocky sublittoral below that dominated by algae (i.e. the infralittoral) and dominated by animals.

Climate Vulnerability

Vulnerability is defined as the propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected and encompasses a variety of concepts and elements, including sensitivity or susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt.


An invertebrate belonging to the phylum Cnidaria which includes the corals, hydras, jellyfish, Portuguese men-of-war, sea anemones, sea pens, sea whips, and sea fans.


Carbon dioxide equivalent. The standard measurement of GHG emissions. The amount of CO2 needed to produce the same amount of warming that other GHGs create.

Coefficient of variation

The coefficient of variation is a standard measure that describes the dispersion of data points around the mean. The lower the CV the more precise the estimate. It is calculated as the SD/mean.

Competent Authority

The term derives from the Habitats Regulations and relates to the exercise of the functions and duties under those Regulations. Competent authorities are defined in the Habitat Regulations as including "any Minister, government department, public or statutory undertaker, public body of any description or person holding a public office". In the context of a plan or project, the competent authority is the authority with the power or duty to determine whether or not the proposal can proceed (SNH, 2014).

Cone Penetration Test (CPT)

A method used in offshore geotechnical surveys to determine properties of soils and delineating soil stratigraphy.


The act or process of colliding (crashing) between two moving objects.

Conversion Factor

The conversion factor is a measure of how much of the hammer energy is converted into received sound.

COVID-19 pandemic

Pandemic caused by the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).


A general term to describe baited traps used to catch crabs, lobster, larger species of prawns (e.g. Nephrops) and some molluscs (e.g. whelks and octopus).

Crew Transfer Vessel (CTV)

Port-based vessel employed to transport wind farm technician and staff on site during construction and operation and maintenance phases.

Critical Bed Shear Stress

Threshold for movement of bed sediment required for sediment transport.


An invertebrate belonging to the subphylum of Crustacea, of the phylum Arthropoda. Includes crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles and sand hoppers.

Cryptic species

One of two or more morphologically indistinguishable biological groups that are incapable of interbreeding.

Cultural Significance

This relates to the ways in which a heritage asset is valued by both specialists and the wider public. It may derive from factors including the asset’s fabric, setting, context and associations. Cultural significance may change over time, for example as use changes or as understanding develops owing to new information or changes in ideas or values.

Cumulative Effect Assessment (CEA)

Assessment of likely significant effects as a result of the incremental change caused by other past, present and reasonably foreseeable activities together with a development.

Cumulative Impact

The total impact arising from the Project, other activities and other background pressures and trends.


Hydrophones that passively monitor acoustics in the water. They are used to record the presence of toothed cetaceans in a periphery of 200-400 meters from the device location.


Deflagration consists of a process where an Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) shell is penetrated by a shaped charge with insufficient shock to detonate. This allows the explosive material inside the UXO to react with a rapid burning rather than a chain reaction that would lead to a full explosion.


DEME Group.


Living close to and being significantly affected by the seabed.

Demersal Fish

Fish species that live close to the sea floor and are bottom feeders. There are two types: benthic fish which rest on the sea floor (e.g. flatfish, dragonets, skates and rays) or benthopelagic fish (see above).

Demersal Fish Species

Fish that live near or on the seabed. Includes species such as haddock, cod, whiting and flatfish.

Demersal Spawning Species

Species which deposit eggs onto the seabed during spawning.

Demersal Trawl (single-rig and twin-rig)

A trawl net that is towed across the seabed rather than through the mid water. A single-rig trawler tows a single net, whilst a twin-rig trawler tows two nets behind the vessel.

Deposit Feeder

An aquatic animal that feeds on organic matter that has settled on the sea floor.

Designed In Measures

Measures included in the design of a proposed development that help to reduce the impact of the Proposed Development.


The last glacial period which includes c.115,000 to 11,700 years ago.

Diadromous Fish

Fish species that migrate between fresh water and the marine environment.

Digital Aerial Surveys

Digital surveys carried out by aeroplane.

Direct Impact

Occurs as a straightforward consequence of activities undertaken in direct connection to the project (derived from Highways Agency et al., 2020).


May be a natural hazard (e.g. earthquake) or a man-made/external hazard (e.g. act of terrorism) with the potential to cause an event or situation that meets the definition of a major accident (IEMA, 2020).

Disposal Sites

Disposal at sea locations, typically used for disposal of dredged material. These sites are subject to Disposal at Sea (DaS) permits from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).


Vessel equipped with dredges for the purpose of catching molluscs that live on or in the seabed (e.g. clams, oysters, scallops, mussels). Dredges are made of a robust steel frame, often with a toothed bar across the lower edge, and a heavily reinforced or chain link bag.


Global tidal model developed by the Technical University of Denmark.

Duration of the Impact

The time over which an impact occurs. Duration should be defined in relation to ecological characteristics (such as the lifecycle of a species) as well as human timeframes. An impact may be described as short, medium or long-term and permanent or temporary.


An invertebrate animal belonging to the phylum Echinodermata that includes sea stars, brittle stars, feather stars, sea urchins and sea cucumbers.


The location of objects by reflected sound.


Term used to express the consequence of an impact. The significance of an effect is determined by correlating the magnitude of the impact with the importance, or sensitivity, of the receptor or resource in accordance with defined significance criteria.

EIA Directive

European Union Directive 2011/92/EU of 13 December 2011 (as amended in 2014 by Directive 2014/52/EU).

EIA Regulations

Collectively the term used to refer to The Electricity Works (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Scotland) Regulations 2017; The Marine Works (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Scotland) Regulations 2017; The Marine Works (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations 2007; and The Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Scotland) Regulations 2017.

EIA Report

Document prepared to provide information on the baseline environment, project description for a proposed development a systematic assessment of a project’s likely significant environmental effects, measures to avoid, prevent, reduce or offset likely significant adverse environmental effects, a description of the reasonable alternatives studied by the developer and a non-technical summary. This EIA Report is then considered by the public and the relevant regulatory authorities before a decision is made on whether to award a consent or licence.


Elasmobranchs like sharks, rays and skates have a skeleton composed entirely of cartilage.

Electromagnetic Field (EMF)

An electric and magnetic force field that surrounds a moving electrical charge.

Embedded Mitigation

Mitigation measures to avoid or reduce environmental effects that are directly incorporated into the preferred masterplan for a development.

Embedded Mitigation Measures

Embedded mitigation measures to avoid or reduce environmental effects on shipping and navigation that are directly incorporated into the design of the Proposed Development.


To fill an area with sound.


Used in sidescan sonar meaning ‘fill with sound’ – the seabed is flooded with an acoustic source and the intensity of the returning sound waves measured.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Assessment of the likely significant effects (as required by the “EIA Regulations”) on the environment of a plan, project or activity.


Organisms living on the surface of the seabed.


Animals living on the surface of the seabed.


Animals living on the seabed.


Depletion of sediment in the intertidal region.


GIS Software Package.

EU Exit

The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union.

European site

A Special Area of Conservation (SAC), or candidate SAC, (cSAC), a Special Protection Area (SPA), a site listed as a site of community importance (SCI), or, as per Scottish Planning Policy (SPP), a possible SAC (pSAC) or potential SPA (pSPA). All Ramsar sites are also Natura 2000 sites)and a protected under the relevant statutory regimes’ (Scottish Government, 2014) as confirmed by Scottish Government (2020).


Broadscale habitat maps produced by EMODnet for Europe.

Filter Feeder

A sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

Final array layout 

The layout of surface infrastructure associated with the Proposed Development included post consent in the Development Specification and Layout Plan (DSLP) and agreed in consultation with relevant stakeholders including the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) and Northern Lighthouse Board (NLB).


A number of vessels having a shared origin, purpose or area of operation.


A portmanteau of the terms floating and hotel. Refers to the installation of living quarters on top of rafts or semi-submersible platforms.

Formal Safety Assessment (FSA)

A structured and systematic process for assessing the risks and costs (if applicable) associated with shipping activity.

Former Firth of Forth Zone

Suitable areas for the development of offshore wind assessed through a statutory process of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) undertaken by Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), now Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS).

Frequency of the Impact

The number of times or how often an activity occurs over the relevant phase of the Proposed Development and will influence the resulting effect.


The load carrying support structure for the wind turbine generator tower or offshore substation platform/offshore convertor station platform topside. The foundation is the part of the structure from the interfacing flange with the wind turbine tower or topside-foundation interface, down to/below mudline. This includes any secondary steel items associated with the structure.

For the purposes of the Offshore EIA Report, the term ‘foundation’ includes the structure from the interface down to the seabed commonly known as the ‘substructure’ and encompasses transition pieces, jackets, and associated pin piles or suction caissons.

Full-time Equivalent (FTE)

Indicates the work-time of an employed person in a way that makes jobs comparable (e.g. an FTE of 1.0 is equivalent to a full-time worker, while an FTE of 0.5 signals half a full-time worker).

Future Case

The assessment of risk based on the predicted growth in future shipping densities and traffic types as well as foreseeable changes in the marine environment.


The remaining biological capacity to absorb impacts.

General Planning Principle (GEN)

General planning principles within Scotland’s National Marine Plan, which covers  the management of both Scottish inshore waters (out to 12 nautical miles) and offshore waters (12 to 200 nautical miles).

General Sailing Areas

Areas in extensive use for general day-sailing by all types of recreational craft but particularly smaller craft such as small cruisers, day-boats, dinghies, sailboards and personal watercraft. Such craft will not normally be undertaking point-to-point passages but will be on out and return activities and may appear to be sailing in random directions as they take advantage of wind and tide to make progress (RYA, 2005).


Geological materials, forms and processes that shape the Earth.

Geographical Information System (GIS)

A system that captures, stores, analyses, manages and presents data linked to location. It links spatial information to a digital database.

GHG Intensity

Unit of measure (kgCO2e/kWh) calculated by dividing the level of GHG emissions (kgCO2e) by electricity generated (kWh). Used to compare the operational emissions of energy schemes to each other and the National Grid average.


Being covered by glaciers/ice sheet. The glacial period is an interval of time within the Ice Age marked by colder temperature and increase in ice sheet.

Grab Sample

A technique used to sample benthic flora and fauna.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Gases created by human activity which are trapping heat in the atmosphere, raising the temperature and causing global warming or climate change.

Greenwich Prime Meridian

Geographical reference line that passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich at 0⁰ longitude.

Ground Sample Distance

A metric used for photogrammetry and measurements in drone mapping and surveying projects, defined as the distance between the centres of two adjacent pixels measured on the ground.


The environment that a plant or animal lives in.

Habitats Regulations


A term that refers to the collective of legislation (three sets of HRA Regulations) that translate the Habitats Directive into specific legal obligations in Scotland, namely:

  • the Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994;
  • the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2017; and
  • the Conservation of Offshore Marine Habitats and Species Regulations 2017 (as amended).

Habitat Regulations Appraisal

A process required by the Habitats Regulations of identifying likely significant effects of a plan or project on a European site and (where Likely Significant Effects are predicted or cannot be discounted) carrying out an appropriate assessment to ascertain whether the plan or project will adversely affect the integrity of the European site. If adverse effects on integrity cannot be ruled out, the latter stages of the process require consideration of the derogation provisions in the Habitats Regulations.

Hammer Energy

Energy used by an impact hammer to drive foundation piles into the seabed.


A behaviour associated with pinnipeds temporarily leaving the water or reasons such as reproduction and rest.


The remaining biological capacity to absorb impacts.


Historic or cultural associations.

High Voltage Alternating Current

High voltage alternating current is the bulk transmission of electricity by alternating current (AC), whereby the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction.

High Voltage Direct Current

High voltage direct current is the bulk transmission of electricity by direct current (DC), whereby the flow of electric charge is in one direction.

Historic Environment Scotland

Lead body for the Historic Environment in Scotland formed in 2015 from bringing together Historic Scotland and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland.

Historic Marine Protected Areas

Designated marine historic assets of national importance due to their particular cultural significance.

High Water Mark (HWM)

The level reached by the sea at high tide.

Hydrodynamic Regime

The dominant wave and tidal conditions which influence sediment transport.

ICES Rectangles

Fisheries data are recorded and collated by International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) statistical rectangles. ICES rectangles provide a grid covering the area between 36°N and 85°30'N and 44°W and 68°30'E.


Change that is caused by an action; for example, land clearing (action) during construction which results in habitat loss (impact).

Important Ecological Feature

Ecologically important features that require further consideration within the EIA process.

In-combination Climate Impact

Effect of a project in combination with an anticipated future climate hazard (due to anticipated future climate change) on an environmental receptor.

Indirect Impact

Occurs as a consequence of a direct impact and may arise via a complex pathway and be experienced at a point in space or time that is removed from the direct impact (Highways Agency et al., 2020).


The animals living in the sediments of the seabed.


Animals that live in the sediments occurring on the sea floor.


A subzone of the sublittoral in which upward-facing rocks are dominated by erect algae.

Inter-array Cables

Cables connecting wind turbines to each other and to offshore substation platforms/offshore convertor station platforms.

Interconnector Cable

Cable connecting offshore substation platforms/Offshore convertor station platforms to each other.

International Maritime Organization (IMO) Routeing

Predetermined shipping routes established by the IMO.

Intertidal Region

An area of a seashore that is covered at high tide and uncovered at low tide.

International Territorial Level 1

Geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of the United Kingdom for statistical purposes, used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). ITL1 statistical regions correspond with the regions of the UK as used by the ONS.

Inter-related Effects

Interrelationships between EIA topics that may lead to environmental effects.

Inter-related Impact

Consideration of how the accumulation of, and inter-relationship between effects might affect the environment, economy or community as a whole (DECC, 2011).

Invasive Species

An introduced organism that becomes overpopulated and negatively alters its new environment.


The sharpness of the peak of a frequency-distribution curve.


 Where the offshore export cables carrying power from the wind farm are brought ashore at MWHS to connect the offshore and onshore infrastructure.


White natal coat of seal pups.


Palaeolithic stone axe manufacturing technique/type named after 19th century finds of tools in the Parisian suburbs.

Likely Significant Effect

With respective to Habitat Regulation Appraisals, any effect that may reasonably be predicted as a consequence of a plan or project that may affect the conservation objectives of the features for which the European site was designated but excluding trivial or inconsequential effects. A likely effect is one that cannot be ruled out on the basis of objective information. A ’significant’ effect is a test of whether a plan or project could undermine the site’s conservation objectives (SNH, 2014).


Residing within the littoral zone which extends from the high water mark, which is rarely inundated, to shoreline areas that are permanently submerged.

Littoral Currents

Flow derived from tide and wave climate.

Longshore Drift

Longshore (littoral) drift is the movement of material along the shore by wave action.

Low Water Mark (LWM)

The level reached by the sea at low tide.


Animals that inhabit the bottom of the water column.


A combination of the extent, duration, frequency and reversibility of an impact.

Main Commercial Route

Defined transit route (mean position) of commercial vessels identified within the Proposed Development array area shipping and navigation study area.

Major accident

Events that threaten immediate or delayed serious environmental effects to human health, welfare and/or the environment and require the use of resources beyond those of the client or its appointed representatives to manage. Whilst malicious intent is not accidental, the outcome (e.g. train derailment) may be the same and therefore many mitigation measures will apply to both deliberate and accidental events (IEMA, 2020).

Major Significance

These beneficial or adverse effects are considered to be important considerations and are likely to be material in the decision-making process.

Marine Aggregate

Marine dredged sand and/or gravel.

Marine Environmental High Risk Area (MEHRA)

Areas in United Kingdom coastal waters where vessel Masters are advised of the need to exercise more caution than usual (i.e. crossing areas of high environmental sensitivity where there is a risk of pollution from commercial shipping).

Marine Guidance Note (MGN)

A system of guidance notes issued by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) which provide significant advice relating to the improvement of the safety of shipping at sea, and to prevent or minimise pollution from shipping.

Marine Historic Assets

Remains of a wide variety of man-made structures, including wrecks of boats and aircraft. It can also include more scattered remains such as groups of artefacts on the seabed from a submerged prehistoric landscape. Marine Historic Assets must have a cultural significance which relates to their artistic, archaeological, architectural, historic, traditional, aesthetic, scientific or social interest.

Marine Licence

Licence granted under either or both of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 or the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010.

Marine Protected Area

Clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.

Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment (MRSea)

Software for statistical modelling used to examine animal survey data to evidence changes in the abundances and distribution of birds and cetaceans in Offshore Renewables Development Areas.

Marine Scotland

Organisation whose purpose is to manage Scotland’s seas.

Marine Strategy Framework

The European Union Directive (2008/56/EC) seeking to achieve good environmental status (GES) in Europe’s seas by 2020.

Maritime archaeology

The physical remains of boats and ships that have been wrecked, sunk or have foundered, and may also be those artefacts which rest upon the seabed as the result of being jettisoned or lost overboard (for example, anchors, cannon or fishing gear).


International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.

Marr Bank

Marr Bank Wind Farm (formerly Seagreen 3 Offshore Wind Farm).


Masking occurs when noise emissions interfere with a marine animal's ability to hear a sound of interest.

Maximum Design Scenario

The maximum design parameters of each Proposed Development asset (both on and offshore) considered to be a worst case for any given assessment but within the range of the Project Description Envelope.

Mean High Water Spring

The highest level reached by the sea at high tide during mean high water spring tide. This is defined as the average throughout the year, of two successive high waters, during a 24-hour period in each month when the range of the tide is at its greatest.

Mean Low Water Spring

The lowest level reached by the sea at low tide during mean low water spring tide. This is defined as the average throughout the year, of two successive low waters, during a 24-hour period in each month when the range of the tide is at its greatest.

Migratory Waterbirds

Species of waders and waterfowl that are ecologically dependant on wetlands and which make regular migrations along the coast of the UK and/or non-breeding individuals that overwinter in the UK.


Modelling software suite developed by DHI employed to stimulate hydrodynamic and physical processes.

Minor Significance

These beneficial or adverse effects are generally, but not exclusively, raised as local factors. They are unlikely to be critical in the decision-making process, but are important in enhancing the subsequent design of the project.

Mitigation Zone

The zone which will be monitored for the presence of marine mammals before commencement of piling, UXO detonation or geophysical surveying. In this MMMP, the mitigation zone has been defined as 2,319 m for piling, 1 km for UXO clearance and 500 m for geophysical surveying.


Invertebrate animal belonging to the phylum Mollusca that includes the snails, clams, chitons, tooth shells, and octopi.


Accumulation of glacial debris.

National Site Network

The National Site Network comprises Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) designated (or proposed) on EU Exit day and which formerly formed part of the Natura 2000 network. The term “national site network” is used in each of the Habitats Regulations and the terms refer to the same network of sites (Scottish Government, 2020).

Natura 2000

A network of core breeding and resting sites for rare and threatened species and habitats.

Natura 2000 Network

A coherent European ecological network of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas comprising sites located within European Union Member States.


Scotland’s Nature Agency.

Navigational Risk Assessment (NRA)

A document which assesses the hazards to shipping and navigation of a proposed Offshore Renewable Energy Installation (OREI) based upon Formal Safety Assessment (FSA).

Neap Tide

Tide that occurs when the sun and moon are at right angles to each other and the gravitational pull of the sun partially cancels out the pull of the moon on the ocean.

Net Zero

This is defined using IEMA's Greenhouse Gas Guidance (IEMA, 2022), which states: Net Zero: “When anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are balanced by anthropogenic removals over a specified period.”
Net zero is achieved where emissions are first reduced in line with a ‘science-based’ trajectory with any residual emissions neutralised through offsets.

Nomadic Vessels

Vessels that move around the UK targeting multiple grounds cyclically.

Nursery Ground

An area that is suitable for young fish to grow and live.

Nursery Habitat

A habitat where juveniles of a species regularly occur as a population.

Offshore EIA Scoping Report

Scoping Report scoping the assessment of all of the offshore infrastructure of the Project, seaward of MHWS (not including the Cambois connection).

Offshore Export Cable

High voltage cable used for exporting power from the offshore substation platforms/Offshore convertor station platforms located within the Proposed Development array area to an onshore landfall.

Offshore Renewable Energy Installation (OREI)

As defined by Marine Guidance Note 654 (Merchant and Fishing) Safety of Navigation: Offshore Renewable Energy Installations (OREIs) – Guidance on UK Navigational Practice, Safety and Emergency Response (Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA), 2021). For the purposes of this Offshore EIA Report and in keeping with the consistency of the EIA, OREI can mean offshore wind turbines and the associated electrical infrastructure such as offshore substations.

Offshore Substation Platform/Offshore convertor station platform

Offshore substation used to convert and/or transfer the energy collected by the wind turbines to the shore.

Onshore EIA Scoping Report

Scoping Report scoping the assessment of all onshore infrastructure of the Project landward of MLWS.

OSPAR Convention

The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic.


Integrated open-source passive acoustic monitoring software. Used for acoustic detection, localisation, and classification of marine mammal vocalisations in order to mitigate harm.


A four-sided shape with two pairs of parallel sides.


Being neither close to the seabed nor near the shore.

Pelagic Fish

Fish species that inhabit open water. Examples include herring, mackerel and sprat.

Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS)

Irreversible loss of hearing.

Perception Bias

Where an animal is on the surface but the detection is missed.

Person-years Employment

The term ‘person year’ in employment terms is often used in construction labour reporting, in which one construction person year represents the work done by one person in a year comprising a standard number of working days.

Phase 1 

Development of two offshore wind farms: Seagreen Alpha and Seagreen Bravo.


Aquatic mammals constituting the clade Pinnipedia (seals, walruses and sea lions).

Planning Permission

Permission granted under the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997 for all Project infrastructure located landward of MLWS.


A class of segmented worms often known as bristleworms.

Population Viability Analysis

Modelling method to predict impacts of the wind fam on seabird populations.

Prehistoric Archaeology

In the British Isles, the period from the earliest hominin occupation more than 850,000 years B.P. to the time of the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 A.D.

Primary mitigation

Modification to the location or design of the development made during the pre-application phase that are an inherent part of the project, and do not require additional action to be taken. Come under the umbrella of designed-in measures.


Berwick Bank Wind Farm both onshore and offshore infrastructure.

Project Design Envelope (PDE)

A description of the range of possible elements that make up the Proposed Development design options under consideration when the exact engineering parameters are not yet known.

Proposed Development

The offshore components of the Project which are the subject of this Application, as described in volume 1, chapter 3.

Proposed Development Array Area

The area within which the wind turbines, substations, inter array cables and interconnector cables will be situated, inclusive of blade overfly.

Proposed Development Array Area Shipping and Navigation Study Area

A buffer of ten nautical miles (nm) applied around the Proposed Development Array Area.

Proposed Development Export Cable Corridor

The area within which the offshore export cables will be situated.

Proposed Development Export Cable Corridor Shipping and Navigation Study Area

A buffer of two nautical miles (nm) applied around the Proposed Development export cable corridor.

Proposed Development Site

The area that encompasses both the Proposed Development array area (an area of 1,010.2 km2) and the Proposed Development export cable corridor up to MHWS (67.9 km2).


A geological timescale comprising two epochs; the Pleistocene and the Holocene.

Racing Areas

Areas of sea in frequent use, particularly at weekends and holiday periods, by large numbers of racing craft normally under sail but also power. Such areas are generally under the control of nearby sailing clubs and may contain temporary or permanent racecourse marking buoys. Detailed routes will normally only be determined on the day of the race although certain longer-distance races may have routes published in advance. In addition, some racing may take place outside the areas indicated. Racing craft will obey the specialised racing rules between themselves but will follow the conventional Collision Regulations when other vessels are in conflict (RYA, 2005).

Radio Detection and Ranging (Radar)

An object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction or speed of objects.

Ramsar Convention

The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (‘Ramsar Convention’ or ‘Wetlands Convention’) was adopted in Ramsar, Iran in February 1971 and came into force in December 1975. It provides the only international mechanism for protecting sites of global importance and is thus of key conservation significance.

Ramsar Site

Wetlands of international importance, designated under the Ramsar Convention.


A component of the natural or man-made environment that is potentially affected by an impact.

Regular Operator

Commercial operator whose vessel(s) are observed to transit through a particular region on a regular basis.


Statistical software package.


The likelihood of an impact occurring, combined with the effect or consequence(s) of the impact on a receptor if it does occur (IEMA, 2020).

Road Map Process

Pre-application stakeholder engagement undertaken for some technical topics through which agreement is sought from stakeholders on what to consider or scope out from the Offshore EIA Report and on approach to assessment.


RPS Energy Consultants Ltd

Sand wave

Sand waves are a low ridge of sand formed through the action of the wind or water (through waves or tidal currents).

Safety Zone

A statutory marine zone demarcated for the purposes of safety around a possibly hazardous installation or works/construction area.

Scoping Opinion

A report presenting the written opinion of the Scottish Ministers as to the scope and level of detail of information to be provided in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for a development.

Scotland Net Zero

Legislated target that requires the Scottish Government to reduce the Scotland’s net emissions of greenhouse gases by 100% relative to 1990 levels by 2045.

Scottish Government

The devolved government of Scotland.

Scottish Ministers

The Scottish Government consists of Scottish Ministers.


Programme which will lease areas of the seabed around Scotland for wind farm developments.


Birds that spend most of their lives feeding and living on the open ocean, coming ashore only to breed.


A tool to estimate the fate of birds displaced by offshore renewable development.

Seagreen Alpha/Bravo

Reference to the sea space occupied at one time by the first two wind farm projects developed in the Firth of Forth Development Zone: Project Alpha and Project Bravo. In 2018, these two projects were combined to facilitate a single optimised project within the same sea area: ’Seagreen’. Seagreen comprises of the two consented sites of the former Alpha and Bravo projects.


An offshore wind farm located approximately 5 km from the Berwick Bank Wind Farm consented with permission granted to install 150 offshore wind turbines allocated to two subprojects: Seagreen 1 (114 wind turbines) and Seagreen Project 1A (36 wind turbines) to facilitate connections to the national grid at different locations.

Seagreen 1

Seagreen offshore wind farm was consented with permission to install 150 wind turbines. 114 of these wind turbines will connect to the grid via a cable route to Carnoustie and a substation at Tealing. These 114 wind turbines are referred to as Seagreen 1. Seagreen 1 is under construction and according to the project website, will be fully operational by early 2023 and therefore will have no temporal construction overlap with Berwick Bank wind farm.

Seagreen 1 Export Cable Corridor

An export cable corridor to connect Seagreen 1 Project to landfall at Tealing Substation.

Seagreen 1A Project

Seagreen offshore wind farm was consented with permission to install 150 wind turbines. 36 of these wind turbines will connect to the grid at Cockenzie via a new cable route (Seagreen 1A Export Cable Corridor). Seagreen Wind Energy Ltd intends to vary the existing consent to increase the height of the wind turbines. Offshore construction is expected to commence in late 2024 and has been assessed to have a potential construction-phase temporal overlap with Berwick Bank wind farm.

Seagreen 1A Export Cable Corridor

An additional export cable corridor (approximately 108 km) connecting Seagreen 1A Project to an identified landfall location. The offshore transmission infrastructure consists of one high voltage export cable to mean high water springs (MHWS), cable landfall and connection to the onshore infrastructure.

Secondary mitigation

Actions that will require further activity in order to achieve the anticipated outcome. These may be imposed as part of the planning consent, or through inclusion in the EIA Report.

Section 36 Consent

Consent which can be granted under section 36 of the Electricity Act 1989 for the construction or extension, and operation, of an electricity generating station.

Service Operation Vessel (SOV)

Field-based vessel to ensure that offshore wind turbines operate safely and to accommodate personnel.


The way the surroundings of a historic asset or place contribute to how it is understood, appreciated and experienced and thereby to its cultural significance.


For the purposes of this assessment, shellfish is considered a generic term to define molluscs and crustaceans (fish with a hard outer case or shell).

Significant Wave Height

Mean wave height (trough to crest) of the highest third of the waves.

Site of Community Importance (SCI)


Defined in the Habitats Directive as a site which, in the biogeographical region or regions to which it belongs, contributes significantly to the maintenance or restoration at a favourable conservation status of a natural habitat type in Annex I, or of a species in Annex II, of the Habitats Directive and may also contribute significantly to the coherence of the Natura 2000 network. The site may also contribute significantly to the maintenance of biological diversity within the biogeographic region or regions concerned. For animal species ranging over wide areas, SCIs shall correspond to the places within the natural range of such species which represent the physical or biological factors essential to their life and reproduction.

Soft Start and Ramp Up (Piling)

The gradual increase in hammer energy and strike rate from approximately 15% of the maximum hammer energy at the beginning of the piling sequence, before energy input is ‘ramped up’ (increased) at pre-defined intervals to required higher levels.

Soft Start (Geophysical Surveys)

The gradual build up in airgun power in uniform stages from a low-energy start up to the required higher energy levels. This is specific to the survey and/or equipment type.

Soft Start (UXO Clearance)

A sequence of small charges deployed prior to the detonation of the UXO.


International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.


The original cause of the hazard, which has the potential to cause harm (IEMA, 2020).

Spawning Ground

Spawning grounds are the areas of water or seabed where fish spawn or produce their eggs.

Special Area of Conservation (SAC)

A site designation specified in the Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC). Each site is designated for one or more of the habitats and species listed in the Directive. The Directive requires that a management plan be prepared and implemented for each SAC to ensure the favourable conservation status of the habitats or species for which it was designated. In combination with SPAs, these sites contribute to the ‘Natura 2000’ or ‘European’ Sites network (in the UK – National Sites Network).

Special Protection Area (SPA)

Special Protection Areas (SPAs) are sites that are designated to protect rare or vulnerable birds (as listed on Annex I of the Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds), as well as regularly occurring migratory species.


A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.

Spring Tide

Tide that occurs when the sun and moon are directly in line with the Earth and their gravitational pulls on the ocean reinforce each other.

Standard Deviation

A measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values.

Standard Industrial Classification 2007

The current Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) used in classifying business establishments and other statistical units by the type of economic activity in which they are engaged.

Static Gear

Any form of fishing gear that operates without being towed or moved through the water (i.e. crustaceans pots, long lines, set nets, traps).


Area extending seaward of low tide to the edge of the continental shelf.


Areas of the coastal marine environment which lie below the level of mean low water and are continuously submerged by seawater.

Suspension Feeder

An aquatic animal which feeds on particles of organic matter suspended in the water.

Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS)

Reversible and temporary hearing loss.

Tertiary mitigation

Actions that would occur with or without input from the EIA feeding into the design process. These include actions that will be undertaken to meet other existing legislative requirement, or actions that are considered to be standard practices used to manage commonly occurring environmental effects. Come under the umbrella of designed-in measures.

The Applicant

Berwick Bank Wind Farm Limited (BBWFL) is a wholly owned subsidiary of SSE Renewables Limited. BBWFL is referred to in this Offshore EIA Report as ‘the Applicant’. The Applicant is developing the Berwick Bank Wind Farm.

Tidal Excursion

The horizontal distance over which a water particle may move during one cycle of flood and ebb.


Non-International System of Units metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms.


The track directly ahead of a survey vessel.

Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS)

A traffic management route system ruled by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The traffic lanes (or clearways) indicate the general direction of the vessels in that zone; vessels navigating within a TSS all sail in the same direction or they cross the lane at an angle as close to 90 degrees (°) as possible.

Travel to Work Area

A Travel to Work Area is a statistical tool to indicate an area where a population would generally commute to a larger town, city or conurbation for the purposes of employment.

UK Net Zero

Legislated target that requires the UK government to reduce the UK’s net emissions of greenhouse gases by 100% relative to 1990 levels by 2050.

Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

Explosive weapons that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation.

Unique Vessel

An individual vessel identified on any particular calendar day, irrespective of how many tracks were recorded for that vessel on that day. This prevents vessels being over counted. Individual vessels are identified using their Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI).

Vessel Traffic Service (VTS)

A service implemented by a Competent Authority designed to improve the safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and to protect the environment. The service should have the capability to interact with the traffic and to respond to traffic situations developing in the VTS area.


A technique used in offshore geotechnical surveys to recover cores generally up to 6 m deep when sampling soft seafloor sediments.

Vessel Monitoring System (VMS)

A satellite-based monitoring system which at regular intervals provides data to the fisheries authorities on the location, course and speed of vessels.


Describes the potential for harm as a result of an event, for example due to sensitivity or value of receptors. In the context of the EIA Directive, the term refers to the ‘exposure and resilience’ of the development to the risk of a major accident and/or disaster. Vulnerability is influenced by sensitivity, adaptive capacity and magnitude of impact (IEMA, 2020).

Wave Height

The distance from trough to crest of a wave.

Wind Turbine

A machine that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electricity comprising the following main parts: nacelle, hub, blades, tower and drivetrain.

Zone of Theoretical Visibility

Tool to identify the likely extent of visibility of a proposed development.

6 nm limit

Inshore fishing boundary.

12 nm limit

Outer limit of the UK’s territorial seas.